Do you have to pay for it or is it part of vehicle registration?
The Bi-Annual thing is kinda odd maybe the vehicle emission test stations are running out of cars to test.
We pay for the Emission Test and the registration separately.
We have more registered vehicles in CA than any state, over 30 million.
That's 7 million more that the second place State, Texas.
Just Los Angeles County has more registered cars than all but 5 States. (Fun freeway driving!)
CA alone owns more than 600k vehicles.
Emission testing is BIG business.