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FFH factoids & parts quiz


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137 replies to this topic

#41 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 25 December 2014 - 10:30 PM

Continuing with the Hybrid Electric Control Software:

 

NOTE: The following is general information only and and may not be complete.  This information is for discussion only and not to be used for problem solving with your specific car.  This information is not intended to replace or supersede any warranty, parts and service policy, Work Shop Manual (WSM) procedures or technical training or wiring diagram information. Seek qualified automotive help if your car is having drive-ability problems.

--

Normal Power Down Sequence

The TCM must conduct a normal power down sequence. Whenever the ignition is turned to the OFF or ACC position, modules powered up by the ISP-R circuit immediately shut down. However the PCM, TCM, and the battery energy control module (BECM) stay on, until the power down sequence is complete. The PCM and TCM stay powered by controlling their own dedicated power relays. The BECM is powered directly from the low voltage battery which permits wake-up function when the vehicle is off. During the power down sequence the TCM:

requests the PCM to cut power to the injectors and ignition coils (engine shut down).

disables the high voltage inverters.

requests the BECM to disable the DC/DC converter.

requests the BECM to open the high voltage contactors.

discharges the high voltage inverter capacitors. opens the TCM power relay.

If the power down sequence does not execute correctly, it is considered an abnormal shut down which may result in the PCM, the TCM and the BECM storing DTCs.

 

Power Up Sequence

The TCM conducts a power up sequence every time the ignition is turned from the OFF to the START position, if the gear selector is in PARK or NEUTRAL. During the power up sequence the TCM:

initializes and begins controller area network (CAN) communications with the PCM and the BECM.

requests the BECM to close the high voltage contactors.

illuminates the green ready indicator indicating the vehicle is ready to drive in electric, gasoline,

or a combination of electric and gasoline modes.

if required, requests the PCM to start the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine will not start if the gear selector is in NEUTRAL. The internal combustion engine starts if it is required for cabin heating, windshield defrost or the outside temperatures are low. The internal combustion engine also starts if the high voltage battery charge is low.

If a concern is detected during the power up sequence, the TCM may initiate LOS mode and store a DTC.


Edited by GrySql, 17 October 2015 - 07:54 PM.

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#42 OFFLINE   Texasota

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Posted 25 December 2014 - 11:04 PM

Glad to see classes have resumed. ;)

 

I haven't given much thought to the power down sequence but I have wondered what was going on during the power up sequence since there is the noticeable time lag from when you turn the key to the "ready to drive" message. I was familiar with almost all of the acronyms but had to lookup LOS (Limited Operating Strategy) in our acronym decoder thread. Very informative, GrySql.

 

Will there be quizzes or exams?



#43 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 25 December 2014 - 11:15 PM

Glad to see classes have resumed. ;)

Will there be quizzes or exams?

LOL...

Nope, information only for those that are interested. 

This car is an absolute technical marvel.


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#44 OFFLINE   DeeCee

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Posted 25 December 2014 - 11:43 PM


This car is an absolute technical marvel.

Agree!!

 

You must have had a quiet Christmas to be able to post this info today. Anyway, much appreciated.


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#45 OFFLINE   garymkrieg

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 11:22 AM

So the question is will the ICE start if the car is in neutral and cabin heat is called for due to low outside temperature? If not then under those conditions it would mimic a Go Time pre-condition of the cabin if you were plugged in.

 

Gary



#46 OFFLINE   lolder

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 01:08 PM

No, the ICE will not start in neutral except in one rare instance, at least in the Gen II 2010-12s. If you are coasting down a long hill in "N" and gain speed from below the max 47 mph EV speed to above, the ICE will start ( or be motorized, it's hard to tell ) so as to keep MG1 rpm below limits. MG1 is the motor-generator connected to the center "Sun" gear of the planetary gear. It controls the transmission power splitting, charges the HVB and starts the ICE. It is the heart of everything.


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#47 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 05:37 PM

So the question is will the ICE start if the car is in neutral and cabin heat is called for due to low outside temperature? If not then under those conditions it would mimic a Go Time pre-condition of the cabin if you were plugged in.

Gary

I read the above as the ICE will not start when the gearshift is in Neutral, it has to be in Park.

 

I went out to the garage this morning, it was 40F, and put the car in Accessory>Neutral>Start>Heat @ 80F.

The car sat there with the Green 'Ready to Drive' dash icon light on for 5 minutes, no heat coming out and no ICE startup, the HVB had about 1/3 capacity left when I got bored.

I then put the gearshift lever into Park and the ICE came on instantly.  Not exactly scientific but something to think about.

 

BTW, after I get done with this hybrid software section I think we'll move to the eCVT section and explore that system.  Seems to be a lot of general interest in how the eCVT actually moves the car.


Edited by GrySql, 26 December 2014 - 08:43 PM.

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#48 OFFLINE   garymkrieg

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 07:12 PM

Was your car plugged in when you did your test in the garage. What I was wondering is can I get the benefit of pre-conditioning using remote start while it is plugged in without the ICE starting?

 

Duh, never mind you don't have an Energi.  It would be interesting to see if it would work that way.  My car is not here with us while we are in Seattle, so I can't test it myself.


Edited by garymkrieg, 26 December 2014 - 07:16 PM.


#49 OFFLINE   lolder

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 10:50 PM

If you leave the car in Accessory, the HVB will keep the car alive by charging the 12 vdc battery until the HVB gets to it's low shutoff limit when the HVB is  disconnected. The 12 vdc battery will power things until it dies. The car is then dead until you jump the 12 vdc. It may take a few minutes for the dead 12 vdc to come up enough for the computers to allow the HVB to be connected again. The HVB will be below normal charge level but will be enough to start the ICE. The HVB will recharge in a few minutes but the 12 vdc will take much longer and you should probably put an automatic charger on it overnight. You probably haven't done the 12 vdc much good and it's life is probably shortened by such an event ( BT,DT ).


Edited by lolder, 26 December 2014 - 10:51 PM.


#50 OFFLINE   Texasota

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 10:55 PM

BTW, after I get done with this hybrid software section I think we'll move to the eCVT section and explore that system.  Seems to be a lot of general interest in how the eCVT actually moves the car.

A syllabus!  Great idea, GrySql. We'll know what to look forward to in the next sessions!


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#51 OFFLINE   mwr

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Posted 26 December 2014 - 11:00 PM

If you leave the car in Accessory, the HVB will keep the car alive by charging the 12 vdc battery until the HVB gets to it's low shutoff limit when the HVB is  disconnected. The 12 vdc battery will power things until it dies. The car is then dead until you jump the 12 vdc. It may take a few minutes for the dead 12 vdc to come up enough for the computers to allow the HVB to be connected again. The HVB will be below normal charge level but will be enough to start the ICE. The HVB will recharge in a few minutes but the 12 vdc will take much longer and you should probably put an automatic charger on it overnight. You probably haven't done the 12 vdc much good and it's life is probably shortened by such an event ( BT,DT ).

Why would the 12v take so much linger to charge that you should put in on a charger? Why wouldn't it be easily charged by driving, just like the HVB only faster?


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#52 OFFLINE   lolder

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Posted 27 December 2014 - 04:55 PM

if you have a deficit of say 60 ampere-hours in the 12 vdc battery, the dc-to-dc converter which I think has about a 120 amp output capacity would ideally take one half hour to charge it. In practice about twice that so you are right, driving will charge it but it takes at least a half hour.

 

The HVB has a capacity of 1.4 Kwhrs. If you discharge it from say 50% to the nominal emergency cut off of 20% capacity, that's 30% of 1.4 Kwhs or 0.420 Kwhrs. The HVB can accept a charge rate of about 50 Kw and the generator is more powerful than that so the HVB recharges in a few minutes, probably in about a tenth of the time the 12 vdc requires.


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#53 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 27 December 2014 - 09:13 PM

Continuing with the Hybrid Electric Control Software, this will end this section:

 

NOTE: The following is general information only and and may not be complete.  This information is for discussion only and not to be used for problem solving with your specific car.  This information is not intended to replace or supersede any warranty, parts and service policy, Work Shop Manual (WSM) procedures or technical training or wiring diagram information. Seek qualified automotive help if your car is having drive-ability problems.

 

---

Regenerative Braking

The regenerative braking is a software strategy and is controlled by the anti-lock brake system (ABS) module, the TCM, and the BECM. Regenerative braking is the ability to capture and store a portion of the energy that would be lost as heat during a braking event. When the driver applies the brakes, the TCM determines how much negative torque (braking force) the traction motor should provide in addition to the friction brakes. Depending on the high voltage traction battery state of charge, the amount of negative torque provided by traction motor can vary between 0 and 100 percent. The traction motor then becomes a generator, which causes the energy to flow into the high voltage traction battery. The TCM strategy smoothly blends regenerative and friction brake effort to make the dual brake operation transparent to the driver.

 

Torque Monitor

The torque monitor resides within the TCM as both software and as a redundant safety processor. The torque monitor detects certain computer concerns of the TCM. The torque monitor also detects if the overall powertrain torque delivered to the output shafts of the vehicle is excessive to what the driver is requesting. The torque monitor detects three gross errors that are present for some calibrated amount of time:

  • unintended vehicle motion - the powertrain accelerates the vehicle when it should not (such as in NEUTRAL) or provides torque in the wrong direction. 

  • excess acceleration - vehicle accelerates at greater rate than the driver or the cruise control requests. 

  • excess powertrain deceleration - vehicle powertrain braking exceeds driver demand. 
When any of the gross errors are detected, the torque monitor communicates it to the TCM, which initiates appropriate action such as LOS mode. The torque monitor requested LOS mode can be cleared when the concern is no longer present, and the ignition is cycled to the OFF position for about 10 seconds.
  • Torque Determination and Energy Management 
The TCM is responsible for torque determination and energy management functions. The TCM monitors gear selector position (PRNDL), brake pedal position (BPP) and accelerator pedal position (APP). The TCM then makes a torque command determination. Positive torque is perceived as vehicle acceleration and negative torque is perceived as braking. Based on the amount of torque requested by the driver, the TCM decides which power source has to deliver the torque to meet the driver demand while the powertrain system is running most efficiently. 

  • Vehicle System Controller (VSC) 
The PCM, the TCM and the BECM are connected to a high speed controller area network (CAN) to exchange information messages. The VSC is a software function integrated inside the TCM, and is responsible for vehicle system operation, generating and sending commands to initiate appropriate actions such as LOS modes when concern is detected. The TCM also stores DTCs along with the freeze frame PID related to the LOS action that was initiated. 


Edited by GrySql, 17 October 2015 - 07:55 PM.

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#54 OFFLINE   Texasota

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Posted 27 December 2014 - 11:53 PM

I was curious if the high speed controller area network (CAN) was an industry standard or Ford proprietary. Lots of details on it here:

 

            http://www.ni.com/white-paper/2732/en/

 

I think I remember other threads talking about how the TCM is the maestro that does most of the controlling and coordination in the FFH and I suppose that is also the case for most other hybrids. It is interesting, to me, that it appears the transmission (as opposed to the ICE) is the heart and soul of this power train.


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#55 OFFLINE   hybridbear

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Posted 28 December 2014 - 09:24 AM

Normal Power Down Sequence

The TCM must conduct a normal power down sequence. Whenever the ignition is turned to the OFF or ACC position, modules powered up by the ISP-R circuit immediately shut down. However the PCM, TCM, and the battery energy control module (BECM) stay on, until the power down sequence is complete. The PCM and TCM stay powered by controlling their own dedicated power relays. The BECM is powered directly from the low voltage battery which permits wake-up function when the vehicle is off. During the power down sequence the TCM:

requests the PCM to cut power to the injectors and ignition coils (engine shut down).

disables the high voltage inverters.

requests the BECM to disable the DC/DC converter.

requests the BECM to open the high voltage contactors.

discharges the high voltage inverter capacitors. opens the TCM power relay.

If the power down sequence does not execute correctly, it is considered an abnormal shut down which may result in the PCM, the TCM and the BECM storing DTCs.

You can see some of this sequence when monitoring the system with Torque Pro. Certain modules immediately go inactive when the car is turned off and stop transmitting data, others continue to transmit data for a short time after the car is turned off. For example, Transmission Fluid Temp stops showing data right away when the car is turned off. 12V battery stats continue to transmit data and you can see how many amps of discharge the 12V battery is experiencing during this time.


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Current Vehicles

2013 Ford Fusion Energi Titanium - White Platinum Metallic

2013 Ford Focus Electric - Ice Storm

315692.png

 

Previous Vehicles

2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid SE x2

252543.png167422.png


#56 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 29 December 2014 - 10:50 PM

Okay, here's a quiz, what's this?

Attached File  hybrid_ecvt.jpg   72.56KB   8 downloads

 


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#57 OFFLINE   Texasota

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Posted 29 December 2014 - 11:19 PM

Okay, here's a quiz, what's this?

attachicon.gifhybrid_ecvt.jpg

 

The picture says it is a hybrid ECVT which would make it the heart and soul of our FFH's powertrain.


Edited by Texasota, 29 December 2014 - 11:20 PM.

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#58 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 29 December 2014 - 11:39 PM

Some quiz when I leave the name on the picture...

Oh well, here's some hard data:

 

NOTE: The following is general information only and and may not be complete.  This information is for discussion only and not to be used for problem solving with your specific car.  This information is not intended to replace or supersede any warranty, parts and service policy, Work Shop Manual (WSM) procedures or technical training or wiring diagram information. Seek qualified automotive help if your car is having drive-ability problems.

==

 

Transmission Overview
The Electronically Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (eCVT) has the following internal components:
    •    Traction Motor
    •    Generator/Starter
    •    High voltage terminals
    •    Pump and filter assembly
    •    Transmission fluid auxiliary pump
    •    TR sensor
    •    TFT sensor
    •    Planetary carrier
    •    Differential carrier
When the transmission range is in the park position the park pawl locks the final drive to the transmission case and the vehicle cannot be moved. The vehicle can be turned on and the ready indicator light illuminates to indicate the selector lever can be moved out of park and the vehicle can be driven.
When the transmission range is in the reverse position, the TCM changes the polarity of the field coil which reverses the electric motor to move the vehicle in reverse.
When the transmission range is in the neutral position, the electric motor does not provide power to or hold the final drive and the final drive can spin freely.
When the transmission range is in the drive position, the TCM provides high voltage current to the electric motor to transfer torque to the final drive.
When the transmission range is in the low position, the transmission increases regenerative braking when the accelerator pedal is released to provide an engine braking feeling and increased battery charging.

 

Attached File  eCVT layout.png   552.93KB   4 downloads


Edited by GrySql, 17 October 2015 - 07:55 PM.

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#59 OFFLINE   Texasota

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Posted 30 December 2014 - 08:09 PM

When the transmission range is in the low position, the transmission increases regenerative braking when the accelerator pedal is released to provide an engine braking feeling and increased battery charging.

 

The behavior when the transmission is in the low position sounds similar to when the Grade Assist (GA) button is pressed. The above does not mention increased compression braking from the ICE.  Are there other differences between the two?



#60 OFFLINE   GrySql

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Posted 30 December 2014 - 11:02 PM

 

The behavior when the transmission is in the low position sounds similar to when the Grade Assist (GA) button is pressed. The above does not mention increased compression braking from the ICE.  Are there other differences between the two?

They do act similar don't they, the PCM gets the response from the Grade Assist switch and sends the response to the TCM.   I'm learning as we go along too, this is complex stuff.  I'm trying to keep it in some type of order, from 2 different sources.

The TCM is the magical box that sits atop the eCVT and tells it what to do.

 

NOTE: The following is general information only and and may not be complete.  This information is for discussion only and not to be used for problem solving with your specific car.  This information is not intended to replace or supersede any warranty, parts and service policy, Work Shop Manual (WSM) procedures or technical training or wiring diagram information. Seek qualified automotive help if your car is having drive-ability problems.

==

 

Transmission Control Module (TCM)
Note: The TCM is also known as the secondary on board diagnostic module C (SOBDMC).
The microprocessor that controls operation of the transmission is called the TCM. The TCM is a stand alone module. The TCM receives a variety of controller area network (CAN) messages and hardwired signals from modules connected to the CAN. Based on information received, the TCM makes a decision on how to control the operation of the generator motor or the traction motor. In case of a concern, the TCM is able to detect and store the appropriate DTC. The DTCs can be retrieved from the TCM by carrying out an on demand or continuous memory self test. The TCM can be reprogrammed. The TCM controls the motor electronics cooling system pump as well as the electric auxiliary heater and transmission auxiliary oil pump (plug in vehicles only).

 

TCM Keep Alive Memory (KAM)
The TCM stores data in the KAM (a memory integrated circuit chip) about vehicle operating conditions, and then uses this data to compensate for component variability. The KAM remains powered when the ignition is turned OFF so the data is not lost.
 

Attached File  TCM location.png   197.2KB   0 downloads


Edited by GrySql, 17 October 2015 - 07:55 PM.

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